If you attended (or are currently attending) our talk in Sheffield for English UK North and are interested in the materials, you can find the handout and the slides below.
So this one is not a lesson as such but more an idea for your lessons.
Coursebooks are rich resources for texts and sadly, due to completely understandable constraints (space / industry traditions / overall themes of a book / editor pressure) they are very often under-used. Listening exercises tend to test comprehension or act as a vehicle for uncovering the target language. While this is a totally valid use of a listening text, I’ve often asked myself if perhaps we could be exploiting them further.
Recently a teacher came to me with a problem. She had finished her double page spread as per her plan, her students had really nailed the controller and freer practice and she had dealt with feedback. All in all, a perfect lesson. But, she had been left with 30 mins in the class so she has dragged out feedback a little and then let them start on some of their homework. She hadn’t really been satisfied with how the class had ended and wondered if I had any advice.
I suggested revisiting the listening text from earlier in the lesson. There is so much that can be done. What follows are just a few ideas that you should be able to apply to almost any listening text.
The idea here is to encourage sts to think about why they struggled (if they did) with comprehension. This can then inform what part of the text you examine. It also means learners don’t just blame their “bad listening”, there will always be something we can teach them that will improve things.
- What percentage of this text do you feel you understood?
- What did you find difficult about this listening?
- What would help you to understand it better?
Pronunciation for listening skills:
The main idea is that if students don’t know it is possible, they won’t hear it. Consider “do you want to” versus /juhwanna/. We cannot expect a learner to know that they are the same. They do not expect written English to vary so drastically from spoken English. It is our job to highlight the differences, little and often.
- Listen to the text with the transcript. Encourage sts to underline chunks that sound different to what they would expect.
- Highlight one or two chunks in the text that sound different to the expected written form. Drill them, encourage sts to write personalised sentences and then drill them.
- Highlight one feature of spoken English (schwa for articles / final consonant & initial vowel linking / stressed words at the end of a sentence or clause) and then encourage sts to listen for other examples within the text.
Very often coursebook texts will work on functional language for conversations but if you revisit the text, you may find something else that will help them with their speaking.
- Give sts the transcript and ask them to mark a circle above words they think will be stressed (spoken clearly). Then listen and check. Examine which words tend to be stressed (info words: nouns/verbs/adj/adv)
- Do the same but ask them to mark when the speaker pauses with a slash. Listen and check. Notice it tends to be at the end of a sentence, after a comma or after a linking word. This will help sts with the flow of spoken English.
- Examine any fillers in the text. It might seem strange but the noises we make in one language can be very different to another. Take for example the Turkish /tch/ that simply means “no” but in English can signal a lack of respect or interest and can be quite offensive. It’s worth pointing these differences out.
What we really want are learners that can analyse texts by themselves, that notice chunks, that don’t really need us. If done little and often, these exercises can help create these super students.
- Ask sts to underline any prepositions on the transcript. Notice what their function is. Are they linked to an adjective, are they part of a phrase, are they related to time or movement? Prepositions are so often overlooked but by drawing their attention to them in context we can avoid having to do lengthy preposition lessons.
- Get sts to underline any interesting chunks in the text. Discuss the meaning, drill the pron and ask them to choose 2 that they will use in conversation that week. Remember to get them to think about how they will use it. They must plan the context. Make sure you follow up with them at the end of the week or they will never do it again.
So, just a few ways you could revisit your listening texts the next day or during the lesson. Just because the coursebook hasn’t had time to look at these, doesn’t mean you don’t. And remember, I don’t expect you to do all of these for every text. That would be insanity and you’d never get anything done.
The key is little and often!
So try some out and let us know how it goes.
Continuing the theme of IELTS lessons, this is another that looks to help students with their exam but also their university studies after.
This looks to explore what arguments are being made and then asks students to respond to them. Stance and criticality are key elements of university study. The ability to understand a writer’s ideas and then use them in their own writing will be tested but sometimes perhaps gets lost in the IELTS classroom. This is a lesson which will work a little on reading skills, but which mostly seeks to prepare students for university. That in turn makes it suitable for any high-level class.
Of course, you can, and should, do all the other lovely textploitation things with a grammar and lexis focus.
Level: IELTS / Advanced / Proficiency
Aim: To give students an opportunity to examine a writer’s opinion and respond to it.
Reading Skills – Prediction
- Direct Students to the worksheet and put them in pairs to discuss what the terms could mean. Focus students on the form of the words. Remember to stress the importance of prediction as a reading skill.
- Read to check – Now ask the students to read the text and find out what the two terms mean. Ask the students which reading techniques they will use: ‘Scanning’ to find the terms and then ‘deeper reading’ to understand.
- To check understanding and practice paraphrasing, ask the students to write their own definitions. Encourage them to think of synonyms and to use different grammar structures. This might be a time to bring in the idea of plagiarism if they haven’t discussed it before. Below are the sections of the text that would need to be paraphrased:
Universal Basic Income (UBI) is a policy whereby a financial payment is made to every citizen, unconditionally, without any obligation to work, at a level above their subsistence needs.
Half-Earth – the simple but profound idea that environmental repair could come from allocating half the Earth’s surface primarily for the benefit of other species
Reading – Note-taking
- This skill will help with IELTS tasks such as matching, but it is a skill I encourage all of my students to do every time they read an exam text. Ask the students to skim read the text – set a time limit (5mins) – encourage them to take notes in the margins.
- Now ask them to compare their notes to their classmates. Make your own notes and see how similar your students are.
NB The article roughly fits a situation / problem / solutions / questioning solutions and conclusion structure.
Reading – Stance and argument
- Ask the students to reread the text and look for the writer’s opinions. Then follow the instructions on the worksheet.
Answers: People would still work; break link between work and consumption; ability to say no to undesirable jobs; chance to think long-term
Answers: Reforesting already in action / our views on nature are forged by our society / re-establishing humans as part of nature / seems popular
note taking on different sections – explain how it helps with matching
Ask students to work in pairs or small groups and discuss the points on the worksheet.
Writing: summary and reacting to it in an academic style to be set as homework.
When marking, encourage students for their content, don’t just mark the grammar and the vocab. Look at the structure, arguments and how they are supported and their paraphrasing / summarising skills.
With this lesson I have learnt something about myself. I have learnt that try as I might, I cannot write a lesson without including some study skills. I tried to do a straight collocations lesson for my students and came out with a collocations + online concordance lesson.
“Get” is one that my students ask about all the time and I am often reluctant to do a lesson on it as I never feel it will do much good unless students actually go out and start to notice these collocations themselves. It’s the whole fish saying thing:
Give me some “get” collocations and I’ll use them for a day, teach me to find them and I’ll use them forever…
That’s the saying, right?
- By the end of the lesson students will be better able to notice collocations in context and to use an online concordance to find common collocations.
Time: 1-2 hours
Level: intermediate and above
- Display the question: what are the major issues we face in the workplace these days? Sts discuss. Feedback as a class and deal with any emerging language but don’t focus on any one over the others.
- Explain students are going to read an extract from story. In it, the main character raises an issue with his boss. Read the story and decide in pairs what that issue is. The issue is inequality in the workplace.
- Discuss as a class if they have similar issues in their countries and what could be done to avoid this in the future.
- Explain that one word is used quite frequently in the story (get) and see if they can find it.
- Sts underline all meanings of get and document them and their colocation in the space below.
- In small groups, sts examine the get phrases and decide what they mean in this context.
- Optional practice: sts write their own sentences using the phrases to check understanding.
- Discuss the following questions with sts:
- Do you avoid get in general? Why?
- Do you use alternative words?
- Are these words more or less natural than get?
- Where can you find more examples of collocations?
- Depending on your tech, either display the following on an iwb or take sts to computer rooms or encourage them to use their phones. For the purposes of this procedure I will assume you are using an iwb. If you don’t have any tech, I have taken some examples and copied them into the worksheet for you.
- Display the British national online corpus and explain what it is. Ask sts how this could be useful. Show them how to use it with “get” as an example.
- Turn over the page and ask sts to analyse the examples. Are they the same as previous examples, are some different?
- Feedback as a class.
- Direct students to the controlled practice exercise to do by themselves and then check in pairs.
- T deals with any errors or confusion. (Note: confusion and errors will probably occur when manipulating these semi-fixed language chunks in context. Students tend to understand them but can struggle when it comes to using them.)
Optional follow up:
- To encourage some level of autonomy, ask the students to choose another verb they find difficult to use. Suggest “have” or “pick” or something that has a lot of collocations or uses.
- Students use the concordance and find common collocations. They record them in a spider gram like with get.
- Students write their own story using as many as they can.
Optional Follow up 2:
- Students write the conversation between Barry and his boss and act it out, trying to incorporate as many “get” collocations as possible.
- T gives points for originality, accuracy and use of collocations and decides on a winning pair.
So, the inspiration for this came yesterday at the Pearson Amazing Minds day in London. Ken Beatty mentioned this story and as he put up one of the direct quotations, I found myself just looking at the past tenses thinking, “ooooh, lesson”. I really am that dull.
The lesson itself is fairly standard textploitation. We have a text, we are going to look at the grammar used, look to build learner autonomy with the vocabulary and investigate a litte bit of pronunciation. Also borrowing in the grammar from the wonderful Danny Norrington-Davies ( https://dannynorringtondavies.wordpress.com/ )asking students to identify what the grammar is doing and why it is used.
Like with all textploitation this focuses on a little and often.
Level: Intermediate (with support) / Upper Intermediate / Advanced
- By the end of the lesson, students will be better able to analyse language in context and to recognise subtle differences in meaning.
- To analyse language in context (vocab / grammar)
- To build the skills needed for the above
- To practice the schwa and connected speech
- Write the phrase “I caught a falling baby” on the board and ask students what they think happened immediately before.
- Ask them to create and build a back story.
- Put them into pairs or groups for this.
- Then do feedback as a class.
Prompt them with questions such as where did this happen / when. Also, ask them to justify these answers.
Ask them to quickly find out:
- Where the story took place?
- How the baby got out of the apartment?
- Why was it not surprising the woman caught the baby?
Place the students into small groups and ask the following questions:
- Did you find the story interesting?
- Did anything surprise you?
- Do you think the woman is a hero?
- Do you think that the parents of the baby should be punished?
(you could break these questions into two sets if you prefer)
Rather than looking at the whole text this lesson breaks the text into little chunks.
Make sure the students really look at the function and use of the grammar. Do not let them just trot out grammar book rules.
(picture is of Christina Torre just for context and as the sheet was looking dull)
“I’ve always known that I’m very quick with my hands. If someone throws something, I catch it almost before I’m aware it has been thrown.”
- present perfect and present simple
- Present perfect is used to describe a skill / ability that the person has had for ever. – the adverbs ‘always’ is a natural fit here. Present simple is used for a fact / ability. Encourage the students to think of how the present perfect and present simple work with each other.
- 0 conditional + the present perfect time clause
- 0 conditional is used to refer to something that always happens “If someone throws something, I catch it”, the present perfect here relies on ‘almost before’ and I think places the time close to the first ‘throws’ in the conditional. It doesn’t neatly fit any rule, and that is important for you to get across to your students.
For these put students in pairs to check before doing all class feedback.
“I was going to visit a friend with her newborn and was on my way to a toy store to buy a gift. I’d once lived in the neighbourhood and on a whim I decided to head back to my old haunt, a cupcake shop, for a coffee.”
On a whim (adverbial phrase) – spontaneously – normally used in positive stories. It is important to let students think about connotation as well as meaning
I decided to head back to my old haunt – My old haunt – a place i used to spend a lot of time in. Get them to give you examples of their own ‘old haunts’ and provide examples yourself. Also, worth highlighting the meaning of head back to here.
- Past version of be going to used to talk about a plan that did not happen.
- Past simple used for the main actions in the story.
- Past perfect used to refer to a time before the time of this story.
Extra – ask if they can find other examples of these tenses being used.
“I just wanted the child, who I later found out was called Dillon, to feel safe”
- extra info
(if they ask about why there seem to be two clauses in the relative clause I told them that find out always needs an object) sentence could be rewritten as just “who was called Dillon”. If they don’t ask, I wouldn’t raise it at this stage)
We didn’t practise together, but I guess my reflexes must have naturally developed.
- it could fit in the beginning, between the clauses, or at the end. (Though) We didn’t practise together, (though) I guess my reflexes must have naturally developed (though).
- The first place sounds more formal, the middle is possible but quite informal(to me, not so natural), the end is also informal
I was approached by a typical Brooklyn older man, who in a calm and very matter-of-fact way told me to call 911, because there was a baby on a fire escape.
- because –> as / since
- because (informal / neutral), as (neutral), since (formal)
(If you wanted here you could extend this by asking them to rewrite using ‘despite’ or in the second sentence maybe think about restructing using ‘so’
“what would have happened if I hadn’t caught him.”
“if we let intuition lead us, we can deal with anything.”
- A – elicit the form from students
- Imaginary / hypothetical past – to talk about regrets or how situations could have turned out differently. “If I hadn’t been late, she wouldn’t have dumped me”
- It talks about every time / general time. It is general advice for the future.
- It is used at the end, to provide a motivating ending / student’s own answers may be more interesting than that.
This is focused on developing learner autonomy, so do not let them use dictionaries until they have tried to work out the meaning themselves. Explain why, get them to think of substituting other words etc.
- looking around nonchalantly – without a care
- baby boy became my only priority. – my main focus
- Apparently he had slipped through pieces of cardboard – people told me (might suggest surprise)
- Instinctively, he grabbed on as he fell, – without thought
- my attention was purely focused on my intention to catch the baby – purely means solely or only here
- As he tumbled, he hit a protruding plastic sign – tumbled – fell / protruding – it was sticking out
- it turned out it was only his lip that had been cut – we later found out
- Dillon’s parents had been woken by the commotion – the noise and fuss
The reality of saving someone’s life is intense. I play it over in my head so many times, I think it has changed me. I am calm and more at ease with things. I study mindfulness, and I see now that if we let intuition lead us, we can deal with anything. I think I was meant to be there.
This paragraph has present simple / present perfect / past simple and a 0 conditional. Again get them to think about why each tense is used – sometimes the reasons are not the same as earlier.
The idea is to look at the schwa and the effect that it has on rhythm when we are speaking.
Schwas are in bold (different native speakers may decide differently. To me, this is the most likely.) Connected words underlined
- ‘The reality of saving someone’s life is intense. I play it over in my head so many times’
Ask the students to practice saying the words, model and drill, but really focus on the schwa and the connected words.
If you wanted to do further work, you could ask them to work in pairs and select another piece of direct speech and examine it, looking for the same features.
You could ask students to find a news story that they found interesting and examine the grammar in it. Bringing it to a future class and asking them to explain it to others in a group and discussing it.
This is a little lesson that could be tagged onto an IELTS lesson or used in the EAP classroom.
Its aim is just to raise awareness of writing style while also giving a some opportunity for some writing practice.
The lesson is on powerpoint, as well as having a worksheet. However, in the spirit of materials light teaching, if you have the ability to use the powerpoint, you probably won’t need the worksheet, unless you want them to have it as a record.
Level: IELTS / EAP / Upper Intermediate / Advanced
Aim: To raise awareness of academic style
Time: 45mins – 1hr
All of the answers for this, apart from the students rewriting answers are on the powerpoint. So it is handy if you can show it.
Ask the students to look at the cloud and decide what is normally a feature of academic writing.
- Ask the students to examine the sentence, highlighting where the sentence is not academic. Ask them to focus on:
vague language subjective language informal vocabulary
2. Ask the students to rewrite it and improve it. Board examples and briefly highlight the improved features.
3. Ask them to look at the longer example and highlight what is wrong. Then focus them on the questions. (In the powerpoint this is done step by step with highlighted examples)
The seal is there as that is Paro – the robot discussed in the paragraph, you could do prediction work based on the picture, or leave it there for decoration. Here is a video showing it. If you wanted to go further.
4. Board good examples or get them to peer correct for some variety.
Follow up / Reflection:
Ask students to look at some of their recent writing and ask them to critique it, bringing in an example paragraph with corrections for the next class.
This is quite a short one. I am a big believer in using music in the classroom but I like to use snippets of songs. I’ve always felt that if you use the whole song, you very often end up with students who hate the song. But, if you listen to one or two verses, they might go off and listen to it themselves.
If you would like to try other lessons using songs or snippets of songs, you could try:
I really like this song as they used present perfect continuous when I feel present perfect would have worked just as well. It’s the perfect opportunity for students to consider why someone might choose one over the other. The continuous aspect really conveys the singers emotion and emphasises how long they feel these actions have been going on for.
Having recently seen the wonderful Danny Norrington-Davies at the ELT Ireland conference, I have decided to take his approach to the grammar for this lesson. I have asked the students why the writer has used the Present Perfect Continuous and I want them to go beyond “It’s an action that started in the past and continued to the present and is still continuing”. I want to hear about the emotion that is being conveyed.
I’ve been looking so long at these pictures of you.
That I almost believe that they’re real.
I’ve been living so long with my pictures of you
That I almost believe that the pictures are, all I can feel.
By the end of the lesson, the students will be more aware of the emotion that can be conveyed through the present perfect continuous.
Time: 1 hour (max)
Level: Intermediate and above
- T should fold the handout in half so that sts cannot see the lyrics.
- T instructs sts to discuss the opening questions in small groups and then feeds back as a class.
- This is a nice opportunity to look at language to discuss music. I’ve included “Taste in music” but I think others will emerge naturally e.g. “I’m not a fan of” “It’s not for me” “I’m not really into X music” “I’m more of a X person”.
- T plays the opening 2mins of the song (or as much as they feel is necessary) and instructs sts to listen and consider the questions at the beginning of the listening section.
- Sts discuss in pairs.
- This is a nice opportunity to introduce the chunk “It makes me feel X” or “It sounds (like)”
- T tells the students that this is a song by The Cure and it is on Youtube if they would like to listen to the whole song. Today, they are just going to listen to about 10 seconds of it and they will be using it for both grammar and pronunciation.
- T plays the first verse (starting at about 2mins 35) and instructs sts to write everything they hear in the empty box. T replays the first verse 2-3 times and sts write down whatever they hear. After each play, give sts time to check with partners.
- T instructs sts to unfold their handout and check their answers. Sts should circle any words they didn’t hear / heard incorrectly.
- This is a wonderful chance for some listening skills reflection. Encourage sts to reflect on what / why they didn’t hear it. Was it:
- because of the music? They will often have music in the background when listening. Is there anything they can do to help them in this situation?
- because of the accent? What in particular surprised them? Focus on these words/phrases and drill them.
- because of the vocabulary? Which words were new?
- because of weak forms and connected speech? See Pron focus section
- T directs sts to the language focus section (putting extra importance on the third question). Sts discuss the questions in pairs. T moves around and helps where necessary.
- At this point you will find sts regurgitating a Raymond Murphy style explanation of the present perfect continuous. Try to discourage this and encourage sts to think why the writer chose to use this tense.
- T gives the sts a post-it note and asks them to write down their answer to the third question. T collects, places them on the board and gets sts to crowd around the board in their pairs and discuss the suggestions. They should choose their favourite answer.
- While they are still standing, discuss their ideas as a class.
- You are looking for something like: The writer wants to convey that they feel these actions have been ongoing for a long time. They want to emphasise the time over the action. Their emotions are being conveyed through this tense. The writer could have used present perfect as well but it would not have conveyed the same emotion and would have highlighted the action instead.
- T moves to the pronunciation section and replays the song to allow sts to decide how “been” and “can” are pronounced.
- Sts have often been encouraged to pronounce “been” with /i:/ but in natural speech it is closer to /bIn/. “Can” becomes /kən/. Drill the chunks as a class, correcting where necessary.
- Sts write their own version of the lyrics below, either keeping the song as a sad one or perhaps changing it to a happier one. Sts make a choice on which tense to use.
- you can either play the song and they all sing their versions together for fun.
- or you can get sts to read them out and practise the pronunciation.
I’ve been looking for an excuse to turn this text into a lesson for ages now and with International Women’s Day coming up in on the 8th March, it seemed perfect.
This lesson actually uses two texts and is absolutely fantastic. Basically some genius of a mother rewrote her daughter’s homework because it was massively sexist. And any time I see 2 versions of the same text, I see a lesson.
Objective: by the end of the lesson, your students will be better able to write complex sentences
Level: Int and above
Time: 2-3 hours
This is going to be the first in a mini series of lessons on connotations. Why bother looking at connotations? Well, there are a few reasons, firstly, for students being able to say precisely what they mean without misunderstanding is key. Secondly, can you really know a word without understanding the implications its use has to those who read it and hear it. Finally, for some students, especially those in CAE or CPE classes a lack of knowledge of connotation can prevent high scores in the Use of English paper.
This whole idea was triggered by my colleague William Tweddle, talking about teaching vocabulary and highlighting the difference in connotation between Opium and Heroin. They are both effectively the same thing and yet with one we conjure images of poets languidly lying in beautiful rooms on divans, music wafting in with the opium haze. The other conjures images of junkies, needles, misery and grime. No surprise which has a perfume named after it.
Aims: To raise awareness of how important connotation is when learning vocabulary
Level: Upper Intermediate / Advanced
The aim here is to raise awareness of how heroin / opium are perceived
Dictionary example from OUP: “A reddish-brown heavy-scented addictive drug prepared from the juice of the opium poppy, used illicitly as a narcotic and occasionally in medicine as an analgesic.”
They will probably find the word ‘drug’ / heroin and the fact it is addictive.
The aim is to have a discussion on the name but leading to the point that Heroin and Opium have very different connotations.
Remind students here that we are really looking for the best answer. All of them could be used.
- affordable – now possible to buy
- good value – the price is fair
- cheap – perhaps low quality
Emphasis that cheap can have a neutral use too.
As an extension, you could ask the students to write a sentence for inexpensive and put the best on the board.
Obviously there is no correct answer here, but it is worth checking with students the meanings
- thin – neutral though sometimes used in a negative sense
- skinny – negative – too thin
- slender – positive – also contains an idea of elegance
- slim – positive – in good shape
- a gossip
- a chatty person
- a chatterbox
The best synonym for talkative is chatty, but perhaps chatty focuses more on informal chats.
A chance to use those words in a longer text.
“So, last week I went to a party with a friend, she’s lovely but she is a bit of a chatterbox, so I know I can never tell her too much. Anyway, when we got to the party we went to the kitchen to find some food. I wasn’t expecting anything amazing, but I really did hope that there would be something other than affordable crisps. If I had known, I would have brought some nibbles myself. There again, I am supposed to be on a bit of a diet. I don’t want to get too slender, but I would like to be a bit slimmer. The party was ok I suppose, I didn’t stay long, especially after I got stuck talking to this one guy. He was a chatterbox and friendly, but so boring. I didn’t spend any money though, so it was a good value evening I suppose. That’s something!”
- a chatterbox – a gossip
- affordable – cheap
- slender – thin / skinny
- slimmer – fine
- a chatterbox – chatty / talkative
- good value – cheap / inexpensive (if the article is changed)
Reflection activity – get students to think about how they could record connotations and their differences in their note books.
Extra activity pronunciation
Eradicating the robots.
Ask students to record themselves saying the improved dialogue and save it.
Drill any words you hear being mispronounced.
You can then look at where they should be pausing. Highlight the punctuation and also get them to think about where the stress should be in each clause – what is the important information?
After they have practised a few times get them to think about tone – how does the speaker feel – ask them to practice this again taking this into account.
Ask the students to rerecord and listen back to both versions and reflect on how the second is an improvement.
Coming soon, another connotations lesson featuring the following words:
Relaxed / laid back / calm / easy going
Juvenile / youthful / childish / childlike
Famous / notorious / renowned / well-known
Hi all, apologies for the recent radio silence, but we have been super busy.
Anyway, here is a lesson using a model answer to an IELTS part two writing task. It is pitched at between a 7 and an 8 in case students are interested. It contains a section on brainstorming and planning, before a little on vocabulary and grammar. Where this is perhaps different is that it then examines how this would be different if it were written for university. This is not an EAP lesson, what it seeks to do is to raise the awareness of the students for what may be needed.
Aim: Provide a good model answer for IELTS and to raise awareness of what will be needed at University
Speaking: This is just to get them thinking about the topic. Put the students in pairs or small groups.
1 The aim here is to help with brainstorming ideas and also moving them onto thinking about whether these are good or bad changes. This is helpful in a ‘to what extent’ essay, but will also be very important at university where they will need a position.
2 Here you are just asking them to further extend what they saw in 1a.
3 Skimming practice – a) Give students the model answer and ask them to read and check whether the writer used the same ideas that they came up with. b) ask them to try to evaluate the essay, is it good / bad and ask them to justify. Give them 4 minutes to read it in detail and then put them into pairs or groups to discuss it. They should decide it is a pretty good essay – good vocab / well linked and so flows / some higher level grammar.
1. a) The aim here is to build synonyms – make sure students focus on and record the prepositions here. If they don’t, they will be unable to use the vocabulary in their own writing.
- changing quickly –> progressing rapidly
- will have a negative effect on –> will be detrimental to
- do not talk to –> lack interaction with
- ignores –> overlooks
- decrease in the number of people who work –> shrinking of the workforce
- is dangerous to –> could pose a threat
- gives us a chance to –> presents an opportunity to
b) This focuses students on the difference in register. These words are more formal, less general and therefore will result in better scores.
2. This is all about reinforcing the chunks of language and checking that they are using them correctly as well as giving a chance for students to personalise. While the students write their sentences, monitor and offer help and encouragement. When they have finished do all class feedback and board some of the examples.
N.B. It is worth focusing a little on the pronunciation of these words too as they would be suitable for part 3 speaking.
This essay talks about changes in the past twenty years so the writer has used present perfect to talk about the changes. This section aims to focus on specific grammar usage and ask students to analyse it.
1 Ask students to look at the example sentence and work alone to answer the questions. Then put them into pairs to check before all class feedback.
- present perfect
- The question talks about the last 20 yrs, this allows us to talk about a change that happened in that time and which may not have stopped or which still has impact.
- paragraph 2 – this overlooks the huge change that these screens have made to the lives of millions. paragraph 3 – As well as the communication change, people often complain of the increase in automation that machines have brought.
- present simple – this is standard in essays.
2 This looks at hedging* and the use of could.
- b is softer and a more defensible position academically so better in an essay. Could is used to hedge the sentence or position.
- possible answers – may / might / can (depending one tense) / it is possible that etc
- They make your writing more academic – soften the position and demonstrate a considered argument.
- possible answer – technology may make life easier
*Hedging is the use of modals or phrases to lessen the impact of a sentence, or to soften. It is common in academic writing.
An essay at University
This section is focused on raising students awareness of how the IELTS exam does and doesn’t prepare them for university.
It starts by asking them what they think is required. This is interesting as some have an idea, some clearly have very little idea. Both are fine, it is good to know where they are.
As an answer, the essay is not suitable – too short – most university essays will be in the 1000s not 100s, not cited, no real thesis position. Areas where it is suitable would be the academic style, cohesion.
1 They are different as the new example takes a position. It tells the reader what the essay is going to argue – This is the thesis statement and students need to be aware that for most essays, this will be a key part. IELTS essays can contain them and it is a good habit to encourage.
2 Ask them to read and then work in pairs. Then do class feedback. They will notice the citations, these are in the Harvard style. They will also hopefully notice the concluding sentence which provides a link to the thesis position. try to elicit this from them.
3 This exercise examines what they do and don’t know about citations
- True – they can do, but this is not the prime reason for using them
- True – you need to base your argument on the research and arguments of others, but blend it together to create something new.
- False – if you do this, your essay will contain no synthesis (blending of sources)
- False – paraphrasing is very important
- False – most have never had to use them before, or if they have they may not have used the same system.
The big thing here is highlighting that they exist. The students do not need them for IELTS but they will need them after.
4 Ask the students to turn their ideas into full sentences.
The positions are limitless in a sense but could include:
- This essay will argue that technology is having an adverse effect on society.
- This essay will argue that the impact of technology is mixed and that though some areas are negatively effected others benefit
- This essay will argue that it depends on which technology
Ask the students what they feel the differences are between university in their country and the UK, and also how IELTS fits into this. encourage them to reflect on how to use what they learn in IELTS classes at uni, but not to think this is the end of the journey.
Ask the students to write the essay using one of the thesis positions that they wrote in exercise 4. Remind them that it is a good idea to get used to taking a position. Also remind them that each paragraph should have a conclusion that links to the overall position. It is not ok just to get to the conclusion and present your ideas like a magician revealing the answer.