This was a lesson I wrote earlier this week, when asked to cover a class with little notice. Having been teaching a lot of EAP, I wanted to bridge the gap between what students do in IELTS classes and at Universities.
The class begins with some reflection, I think the important thing here is that even if they are not planning to go to university, paraphrasing is a crucial skill, however, why then are they doing IELTS, especially if studying within the UK.
When teaching it I highlighted how much we paraphrase in our daily lives, the fact native speakers find it almost impossible to repeat what someone has just said to us without altering it.
This lesson aims to serve as an introduction to paraphrasing, and looks at both lexis and vocabulary within the framework of IELTS.
Aim: introduce students to paraphrasing, to better prepare them for IELTS and their studies afterwards.
Level: High Int +
Reflection to begin: for all of this section set up groups and monitor and then do all class feedback
the things that students should need will be numerous but should include: register, ability to use a variety of grammar / vocab, cohesion, coherence and the ability to paraphrase. Any others that you think work, please include.
For what should come next, all of them.
I asked them to define without looking and then showed them the definition, but you could ask them to read the definition and then rewrite it using different words if you think your class can do this.
Why we do it – again, I did this and ‘how we do it’ as a group discussion
Why – to avoid repetition, to show off range, to avoid plagiarism
how – changing vocab, changing grammar
Using Vocabulary / Grammar
examples and graph come from
- Ask the students to read the two example paragraphs and evaluate it. It is a good example and would have got an 8 approximately
- .Ask them to focus on the words shown and in pairs think of synonyms, try to discourage them from using dictionaries.
here are possible synonyms, accept any others and explain why some may/may not work here.
shows – depicts
a gradual decrease – a steady fall
study for their career – learn in order to further their future job prospects
gradually declines – steadily reduces / experiences a step by step fall
Identify the word form difference:
people who study for career reasons – study (v) / career (acting like adj) / reasons (n)
interested in studying for their career – studying (n) / career (n)
Passives – this is really easy, just a way of them adding and rewriting
answer: it can be seen that the percentage increases slowly
answer: if we look at the graph, it can be seen that the percentage increases slowly
If we look at the graph, it can be seen that there is a slow increase in the percentage
follow and guide students through this.
n.b. – I ask students to find examples in the real world as part of their homework and to bring them to the next class to check
Answer for “women earn less than men”:
earn (v) –> earnings
The earnings of women are less than those of men
Free practice part 2
There are no correct answers here, I gave students around 5-10 mins to work on this in pairs and asked them first to think about words where synonyms could be used.
I would recommend getting different versions on the board and comparing them.
Remember this is only supposed to be an introduction, there will be more in-depth lessons coming soon.
PDF – paraphrasing
Word – paraphrasing